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Setting Up A Savings Ladder
Step-By-Step Guide to Savings
Where do you put the savings portion of your paycheck?
What do you do with the money you have made so far that you don’t know what to do with?
Welcome to the savings ladder!
The process is simple; when you complete one step you simply move up the ladder and do the next step. If you need to take money out of a ladder step, climb down one step and start over. The point is to continue moving up the ladder but if you have to take a step down- its ok! The ladder is made for climbing up and down!
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The Ladder Rungs
Life Happens Fund: Put away $1,000 in this fund. This money should be accessible to you in times of emergency. I used to call this my Emergency Fund but I have since changed the name to the Life Happens Fund. Because Life Happens and you can’t possibly plan for everything. It can be in a checking account or a simple savings account. You do not want it tied up in something that takes a while to withdraw or has penalties for withdrawal. I used to think that this should be for things that are only for Emergencies but I decided that this is really for things that you didn’t budget for because you couldn’t predict them or you didn’t know you had to budget for.
Really, you should try to budget for events as much as possible. For example, back to school expenses come up every year and therefore can be planned in advance. Holidays, gifts, clothes etc. should all be part of your budget and you should have an “Envelope” for each. Things like that should not be taken out of the Life Happens Fund. BUT… if you would otherwise go into debt for it then, by all means, take it out of this fund. This should act as a buffer between you and debt. This will help you cashflow unexpected expenses and keep you debt-free and able to handle life’s surprises. Hopefully, you will never touch this money- but if you have to withdraw money than immediately replenish the account so it has $1,000 in it.
Here is an example of an easy account to open: https://captl1.co/2vl8R8a
Retirement: Take $6,000 and put in a Roth IRA (or SEP IRA if you are self-employed).
Why do I suggest putting money away for retirement as the second step?
There are 2 reasons for this:
1. Compound Interest- the earlier you put in money the more it grows and accumulates interest.
2. Usually, when things get tough (as they usually do) the first thing people do is lower their long-term saving contributions. By putting this money away now you are making sure that at least you have some form of long-term savings put away. The best way to financial plan is to assume that later in life you will have less money, not more. That way if that is true you have planned appropriately. If you do have more money later in life- you will just be richer.
IF YOU HAVE JUST GOTTEN A JOB, ESPECIALLY IF YOU DO NOT HAVE KIDS YET, THEN SAVE AS MUCH AS YOU CAN!
The easiest way to do this is to open a Targeted Retirement Account. Pick an account that allows withdrawals in the year you plan to retire (at age 59 1/2) and max it out every year as soon as possible. The maximum contributions are $6,000 for someone filing taxes independently. Keep in mind that just like all investment options -there are pros and cons to these accounts. In my own personal opinion, these are the easiest to “set and forget” for the uninitiated investor who needs to set up a retirement account- which you should do as soon as possible- COMPOUND INTEREST. So yes, if you are 18 year old, it’s not too early to start thinking about retirement.
Some accounts need a large minimum deposit in order to open. If you don’t have that kind of money, simply open a savings account such as Barclays or Ally and deposit the money in there. Once you reach the minimum deposit amount you can open your account.
I am not an expert on investing- so I won’t tell you what to do besides to open the account. But here are some links to help you get started!
Vangaurd Target Retirement Fund: https://investor.vanguard.com/ira/iras
Vanguard SEP: https://investor.vanguard.com/what-we-offer/small-business/overview
3-6 Months savings: This is the “Emergency Fund”. Take all your expenses and multiply that by 6, or take only the bare minimum and multiply by 3. This is the amount that you need to have in this account. This savings should also be fairly easy to access. A simple savings account should do the trick. No CD’s or mutual funds. You are not going to make money off this account- you just want it there when you need it. Of course, if you can put it in a savings account that pays interest that will just work in your favor!
Intermediate Savings: What are your upcoming big expenses? Finishing your degree? Going to graduate school? Will you need to pay for a wedding? If none of these apply than you can just start putting money away for a house. This account should be a money-making account but you don’t want something too risky. A good mutual fund should do the trick. You want the money to work for you but you don’t want to take too many risks as you may need the money in the near future. Even if you don’t it’s a good idea to have money in an account that makes money but is not too risky. The amount that you out in this account will vary based on your needs.
The Sky is the Limit: This is where you can get creative and get rich. You have enough for school? For a wedding? For a down payment on a house (or getting there)? Start diversifying. Put your savings money in different brokerage accounts, mutual funds, CD’s, start trading etc. Never put all or most of your money in one place and don’t invest more than you can afford to lose.
At this point you are ready to start some real investing. I have not reached this point yet so I can only point you to the experts to help guide you. The Smart Investor has many great investing guides, like this one about How to Choose The Right Broker For Your Needs where they also break down the different types of brokerage accounts and what fees and limitations are involved with each one.